Ka: WardheerNews | Abriil 2009
Tarjamay: Samantar Maxammad Saciid
|Diiwaan ee Maansada Soomaaliga|
Faalada Maamuleha Wargeeyska:
In amaanba cadaalad ma u qaban karto marxuunka Bogumił Witalis Andrzejewski iyo wax ku korariskiisa soogaanta iyo afka Soomaaliga. Isku taxallujintiisa aanan daalka lehaynin iyo qaddarintiisa afka Soomaaliga ayaa u sabab naqodtay hingaadda Soomaaliga oo kamadanbeeyskii ka yeeli doontay Soomaaliga af qoran.
Barfasoor Andrzejewski oo lagu tixgalin jiray hogaan aqoonyahan ee heer caalami ee soogaanta Soomaaliga ayaa baaristiisa taxaddaran iyo qormooyinkiisa afka Soomaaliga aglool ugu naqodayn aqoonyahano badan iyo akademiyeyaal ee xagga soogaanta Soomaaliga. Kali-ahaan ayuu soogaan-afeedka Soomaaliga meel ugaga abuuray sameeyska soogaanta adduunka. Wareeysigan wuxuu muujiyaa jacaylka hawleed ka dhaxeeyay Andrzejewski iyo xaaskiisa gacalisada leh Sheila intay kaga wada shaqeeynayayn sannooyin dhinac ka dhinac si ay u soo tarjumaan sadaro macne dhafan ee maansada Soomaaliga. Haddaba waa had u qabwayn WardheerNews inuu soo bandhigo wareeysigan dhifka ku jira oo uu qabtay Dotoor George Kapchits aqoonyahan kale ku taxallujisan Soomaaliga oo arday baxsi ee marxuunkii barfasoorka ahaa.
Georgi Kapchits: Saaxiibkayga Soomaaliga Khaliil Xasan oo ka mid ah maamulka daabaca WardheerNews, mid kuwa kobshabakeedka ugu fiican, baa yiraa in jiilkii hore naanaysta Guush ee barfasoorka Andrzejewski yaqaanay Soomaali walba waxbarasho lehaa. Laakiin maanta Soomaalida dhalinta ah (xataa kuwa waxbarsho buuxda leh) oo soo booqada kobshabakeedkiisa waxay ka yaqaanaan wax iska dhif ah wax ku korarinta saygaada horumarinta baarista Soomaaliga. Sidaas darteeda wuxuu ii soo bandhigay inaan ku waydiiyo, haddaad iga aqbali karto wareeysi ku saabsan Guush. Wuu hubaa inuu naqon doono ma ahee mid xiiso leh bal mid waxtar leh. Maxaad u maleeysaa?
Sheila Andrzejewski: Haa, waan ku xiiso leeyahay inaan ka jawaabo su’aalba ku saabsan Guush. Waxaan rajeeynayaa inaan kari doono wada xusuusashadooda. Dabcan waan jaclehay fikradda sii nooleeynta xusuusta magaciisa ee ahaantiisa qardajeexa soo gaarsiiyay dhugta dunida maansada Soomaaliga, inkastaysan nasiibdaro dunida badanaa aad ugu xiiso lehaan jirin...
Georgi: Maan kula qaybsado fikraddaada. Way ku xiiso lehayd, maantana way ku xiiso leedahay, 15 sanno kadib Guush dhimashadiisa. Si tan loo hubiyo waxaa ku filan ka raadinta “Andrzejewski” shabakada. Matoor walba ee raadinta wuxuu durba kuu soo saaraa taariikh-nolaleedkiisa iyo qaayimada daabacooyinkiisa tirada badan. Calaakullixaal, may ka hadlaan maansada Soomaaliga kaliya, bal xataa afka Soomaaliga, hideha iyo dhaqanka. Middaas ka sokaw, muu jiro buug qura ee xaadirka ama qodab ku sacoda arimaha Soomaalida aanan tixraacin “Maansada Soomaaliga: Gogaldhiggeeda” oo uu Guush la qoray I. Lewis, “Xikmad Soomaali” oo uu la soo saaray Muuse Xaaji Ismaaciil Galaal ama “Isrogrogga Magacyada Soomaaliga”, “Isrogrogga Shaqalada Soomaaliga”, “Kaalinta Diiradeeyeyaasha Soomaaliga” i.w.m. Sheila, waxaan iswaydiinayaa buugagga ama qodabada Guush qoray kuwee laga heli karaa hadda gurigiisa ku yaalo Harpenden, Herts, meesha, sidaan ku hubo, ay qayb ruuxiisa ku nooshahay?
Sheila: In aad u badan, dhabtii, ma laga helo Harpenden, waayo maqaaladiisa dhan, hawshiisa faalooyinkeeda, xataa erayo uun ku qoran gabalo xaashiyeed, i.w.m., waxay ku kaydsan yahiin labo maktabad jaamacadeed: kuwa asalka waxay yaaliin maktabtadda SOAS, waxwalbana sawiradooda waxay yaaliin Bloomington, Indiana. Dhamaan hawlaha daabacan waxaa laga heli karaa maktabadahan, iyoba kuwa kaydka duubka iyo kuwo kale ku takhasusa Afrika. Duubabka ee baaritaanadiisa koowaad 1950-51kii waxay ku kaydsan yahiin Maktabadda Biritaaniga qaybteeda duubabka Afrika. Hawlihiisa danbe waxay yaaliin maktabadda Bloomington, laakiin maan hubo hadday yaalaan SOAS. Duubabka ee baaritaankiisa 1950-51kii baa ah kulanadiisa ee Muuse Galaal, kaaliyehiisa hawlkarka leh, oo goortii tusmo naxweed la waydiin jirayba soo qaadan jiray had iyo jeer bayd ay ku jirtay. Bilawgii xiiseeynta Guush ee soogaanta...
Georgi: Sidee u dhacday Guush inuu bilaabo barashada Soomaaliga? Goortii ugu horeeysay aan la kulmay 1990kii waxaanu yeelanay wada sheekeeysi aad u dheer, dabcan Af Soomaali buu ahaa. Aad bay u fiicnayd arkidda aabeha cilmibaarista Soomaaliga iyo dhageeysashadiisa Soomaaligiisa heerka sare. Wuxuu ahaa aqoonyahanka yurubka ugu horeeyay ugu hadla afkan si bulbul ah. Wuxuu Guush ii sheegay in Muuse Galaal ahaa abaankiisa ee goortii socdaalkiisii ugu horeeyay ee Soomaaliya ahaana macallinkiisa koowaad ee Soomaaliga. Halkan Mooskow, xafiiskayga guriga waxaa yaala masawir aad ii soo dirtay sannado badan hore u sacoday buuggayga “Faaliyihii la Bilkaydiyay”. Masawirka waxaa la qaaday 1951kii. Maalin walba waan fiiriyaa oo arkaa Guush oo dhalinyar ahaa la joogay koox Soomaali. Guush iyo saaxiibadiisa waxay lehaayayn waji dhabeeysan. Kan kaliya ka duwanaa waa Muuse Galaal, oo muusaabayay. Sidee Guush iyo Muuse ku kulmayn? Qof noocee ayuu ahaa maansoole Muuse Xaaji Ismaaciil Galaal?
Sheila: Goorta Guush kaga soo qalinjabiyay Oxford 1947kii shahaado jaamacadeed ee afka Ingiriiska iyo soogaanta, buu bilaabay inuu u qorto arjiyo shaqooyin si uu uga baro Ingiriiska dugsiyo ee dalka dibadiisa, meesha aksentkiisa Bolishka looga dareemin si aad. Wareeysiga shaqada middeeda ee Maalta (mustacmarad Ingiriis bay wali ahayd sidaasna wareeysiga wuxuu ka dhacay Xafiiska Mustacmaradda ee London) wuxuu ka hadlay xiisahiisa inuu cilmibaaris ku sameeyo afka Maaltada, iyo xiriirkeeda inay ka soo jeeddo Carabiga, maxaayeelay wuxuu ku xiisayeeshay Carabiga intuu Liibiya kula dagaalamayay Jarmalka iyo Talyaaniga 1941kii. Maysan ku qaadanin shaqadan, laakiin waxay ka balanqaadayn inay magaciisa sii gudbiyaan, wuxuuna runtii ka helay warqad xoogaa todabaadyo kadib u soo bandhigaysay shaqo ka jirtay Mustacmaradda Ingiriiska ee Soomaalida WaqooyiGalbeed, maysan ahaynin inuu wax ka baro laakiin inuu cilmibaaris ku sameeyo luqadda si loo abuuro alifba’; maynun ka aqoonin gayigaas waxna laakiin wuxuu ku aqbalay shaqada raynrayn! Saaxiibadayna ugu horeeyay waxay ahaayayn Anthony Mariano iyo Cali Shiikh Jirde, oo wax ka baranayayn Ingiriiska waagaas (1948-9), waxayna wax ka siiyayn hab-dhawaaqa iyo dhaqanka, iyagoo isku dayin inay wax badan ka baraan afka. Kadib Guush 18kiisa bil ee tababarkiisa hore ee dhawaaqa iyo habka dhisidda alifb’da ee SOAS, waxaynu nimid Shiikh Febraayo 1950kii oo aynu ka warhelnay in Muuse Galaal darta Guush loogaga soo wareejiyay dugsiguu macallin ka ahaa si uu u naqdo wargaliyehiisa iyo macallinkiisa Soomaaliga. Wuxuu dhaqsoba naqoday saaxiibkayna iyo lataliyehayna aadka u qiimo badan, iyoba mid sheekosheegeyaasha ugu waawayn adduunka – wuxuu ahaa nin maad badan! Waxaan ku dareenqabaa in dhamaan waxaynu ka naqaanay hideha Soomaaliga ay ka timid isaga. Goor danbe buu ku yimid London kaaliyeha Guush ahaan, oo ku qaadtay shahaado cilmi-afeed, dabadeed buu nolashiisa danbe kula sacdaalay dunida jagooyin kala duwduwan, waxaan u maleeyaa inuu goor UNESCO u joogi jiray Wasaarada Waxbarashada. Wuxuu ahaa saaxiibkayna gacalka ilaa dhimashadu cimrigiisii soo gaabisay.
Georgi: Aslanba waad ku saxsan tahay inaad ku wacday Muuse Galaal sheekosheege wayn. Waxaa ku filan aqrinta “Faalyihii la Bilkaydiyay” ee uu u wariyay Guush oo gaarsiiyay dunidda kalkii lagula daabacay “Xikmad Soomaali” 1956kii raacsiiyayna naxwe asaas ah iyo faalooyin u fududeeyay in lagu aqriyo Ingiriiska. Sheekoxariirkan wuxuu soo saaraa hodannimada afka Soomaaliga, male-abuurka xaddhaafsan ee Soomaalida iyo aqoontooda falsafeed yaabka leh. Waa tan dhacdada sheekada: Faaliye, ku dhiiragashan amarka iyo abaalmarinta suldaanka, ayaa la dhigta heshiis bilkaydiye (mas); waxay war ku waydaarsadaan meel gaar iyo amin gaar. Sida la filanayay, dagaal, abaar iyo roob ayaa iska dabadhaca. Faaliyehii jeer kasta waa lagu abaalmariyaa laakiin wuxuu kula dhaqmaa jeerkiiba horar, dhabcaal iyo deeq xagga bilkaydiyeha. Dhamaadkii, bilkaydiyehii wuxuu u soo shaacbaxiyaa in ficilada dadka, oo ay ku jiraan kuwa faaliyeha, ay ku xiran yahiin dhacdooyinka guud: nolasha waxay la qaab leedahay dhiska uunka.
Middeeda kale, Muuse Galaal waa kan soo gaarsiiyay sheekada leh sadex maanso heersare ah. Dhiiggayga baa barafooba kalkaan aqriyo sadaro ee midkooda, iyagoo saadaalinaya dagaal: (Waxaa u soo tarjumay Ingiriiska B.W. Andrzejewski and Sheila Andrzejewski) sida loogaga jeedo cinwaanka hore “Xikmad Soomaali”, Andrzejewski 1956kii wuxuu Dugsiga Cilmibaarista ee Bariga iyo Afrika (SOAS) ka ahaa macallin ee afafka Kuushka. Nolal-hawleedkiisa sidee buu ugu sarekacay macallin-ahaan?
Sheila: Goortaanu ka soo tagnay Mustacmaradda Ingiriiska ee Soomaalida Waqooyi Galbeed (British Somaliland) Setembar 1950kii Guush muusan hubin mustaqbalkiisa; Barfasoor J. R. Firth ee SOAS-ga, oo aqrin jiray warbaxinada hawshiisa ayaa u qoray inuu u qaban doono dadaalkiisa ugu wanaagsan si uu uguga soo helo shaqo SOAS laakiin waxna ma laga gaarin. Dhanka kale, goortuu ku soo laabtay London wuxuu dhameeystiray warbaxintiisa ee qorshahiisa ee alfba’ rasmi ah, oo uu u sallimay Xafiiska Mucaawanada iyo Horumarinta Mustacmaradaha. Waxay kamadanbeeyskii ku go’aansadayn inay ku lid naqonayso meelmarinta alifba’du siyaasada gumeeysteha, sidaas baa alifba’dii layskaga dhaafay. Labaadtan sanno kadib waxay naqodtay alifba’ cusub ay baddalaad ku sameeyayn Muuse iyo xubno kale ee Gudiga Afka Soomaaliga. Janaayo 1952kii Guush wuxuu ka qaadtay SOAS jago macallin ee afafka Kuushka, oo dartiisa loo alkumay, wuxuuna ugu sarekacay jagada Barfasoor Kalkaaliye Sare, kadibna Barfasoor, kadibna Barfasoor u Fasaxan Jaamacadda (Professor Emeritus) goortuu ka hawlgabay 1982kii. Ayaamahiisii ugu danbeeyay cinwaanka jagadiisa ee Afafka Kuushka waxaa loogu baddalay Afka iyo Soogaanta Soomaaliga, mid ka fikradcelinayo xiisooyinkiisa gaar.
Georgi: 1960aadkii buu aqoonyahan-ahaan ugu lehaa waxsoosaar badan Andrzejewski. Hawshiisa asaaska “Isrogrogga Magacyada Soomaaliga” waxay la soo shaacbaxday taxano qodabeed qardojeex ahaa ee qaamuuseeynta Soomaaliga, cilmiga dhawaaqa, cilmiga qaabka erayada iyo cilmiga weereeynta, sida “Kala baxsanaanta hadalka iyo qormada ee xaaladda afaf-badi ee Jamhuuriyada Soomaaliya”, “Qurabada Magacuyaalka iyo Horyaalka ee Soomaaliga”, “Faalooyin ee Magacuyaalada Soomaaliga”, “Sansaanka Isrogrogaad loogu magacdaray «Falalka ee Isrogrogga Kala Jaadsan» ee Soomaaliga”, “Baaritaan gaaban ee Falalka Sifada ee Soomaaliga” iyo kuwo kale. Si wada barbarsan wuxuu jacaylkiisii maansada Soomaaliga, oo aad horey u sheegtay, natiijeeyay “Maansada ka jirta bulshada Soomaalida”, “Maansada dagaalka ee Soomaalida” (uu la qoray Galaal) iyo “Maansada Soomaaliga. Gogaldhiggeeda” ee heerka sare, oo uu la qoray Ioan Lewis. Waa fiicnaan lehayd haddaad soo garwaaqsan karto siday ugu shaqagalayn buuggan. Meelma iyo jeerma ayuu Guush la kulmay cilmi-insaanyahanka waqtigaas dhalinka ahaa oo jeer danbe ka naqoday Barfasoor Dugsiga Dhaqaaleha London ahna mid kuwa ku aqoonta leh Soomaaliga?
Sheila: Si aad waan u xusuustaa la kulankaayaga koowaad ee Ioan Lewis, ayaandarose maan soo garwaaqsan karo sannadka gawda ah; wuxuu u badan yahay dabayaaqadii 1953kii. Wuxuu ku diyaarinayay Oxford shahaadada jaamacadeed ee cilmiga insaanka, waxaan u maleeyaa, in Evans-Pritchard ay isla diyaarinayayn, oo kula taliyay inuu u aado Mustacmaradda Ingiriiska ee Soomaalida Waqooyi Galbeed (British Somaliland) cilmibaaristiisa. Wuxuu sidaas daraaddeeda la soo xiriiray Guush, oo kula casumay gurigayna inuu shaah nala qaadto – gurigayna wuxuu ka koobnaa waagaas qol yar ku yaalay guri ee saaxiib. Guush wuu kula raacay inuu baro Soomaali, isoo ka kalkaalsanayay Muuse Galaal, oo Guush uga soo abaabulay SOAS inay u keenaan London si uu uga kalkaaliyo cilmibaaristiisa, iyoba si uu ugu yeelo Muuse inuu diyaariyo shahaadada cilmi-afeedka. Ioan iyo Guush dhaqsadiiba waxay naqodayn saaxiibo isku xoogan iyo iskaashadeyaal, oo marka waxay ahayd dabiici inay wada jir ugaga wada shaqeeyaan “Maansada Soomaaliga: gogaldhiggeeda”. Guush wuxuu sameeyn jiray tarjumidda hore, deedtona Ioan baa la qaban jiray si ay ugu yeelaan Ingiriis ku haboon. Waxay ku wada wadaagi jirayn faalooyinka qodtada leh sida midkiiba khabiir ugu lehaa.
Georgi: Sidaad ku sheegtay sameeynta tarjumid hore ee xagga Ingiriiska oo uu Guush sansaan ugu leeyahay baa i xusuusiyay meeesha jiridkiisu ka soo jeedo. Bogumił Witalis Andrzejewski (kan waa Guush magaciisa buuxa) wuxuu ku dhashay magaalada bolishka ee Poznań 1922kii. Buug abwaaneed kasta oo bolish casri ah wuxuu ku tilmaamaa bolish cilmi-afeedyahan iyo maansoole. Maan ka haysanin wax fikrad ah hibaddiisa labaad (haddaanba wax ka haystay tan koowaad!) ilaa 1993kii goortuu i soo hordhigay buuggiisa “Podróż do krajów legendarnych” (“U Sacodaalka Dhulal Usduuraad”). Fadlan ma faahfaahin kartaa sannooyinkii dhalinyarada ee Guush? Waxaad hore u sheegtay inuu la dagaalamay Nazi-ga 1941kii. Sidaanu uga ognahay taariikhda, Bolaan 1939kii waxaa haystay Jarmalka. Maxaa ka soo qabsaday dhalinyarkii Bogumił waagaas? Haddaanan qalad igu jirin, Bogumił wuxuu macnehiisa ku yahay Bolishka “Ilaahay baa jacel”. Waxay u egtahay in Ilaahay dhabtii jacayl iyo daryeelba ku rogay, waata uu ka samadtobaxay musiibada dagaalka…
Sheila: 1939kii Guush wuxuu ahaa 17 jir, rajeeynayay inuu dhameeystiro dugsigiisa sare oo aado jaamacadda, laakiinse dalkii Jarmalka ee Nazi-ga xukumayay ayaa qabsaday Bolaan, oo durba ku amarbaxiyay in caruurta bolishka laga bilaabo waqtigaas aysan waxbarasho ku lehaan doonin inta ka sareeysa dugsiga hoose. 1940kii Guush wuxuu ku go’aansaday inuu ka baxsado Bolaan, laakiin waqtigaasiba Nazi-ga waa wada qabsaday badanka galbeedka Yurub laga reebo Biritaanya, waxayna ahayd inuu xagga bariga ka dhaxmaro dalalka aanan wali la qabsanin ay ka mid ahaayayn Hangari, Yuguslaafiya iyo Giriigga. Wuxuu ku maray sacod intooda badan, wuxuuna soo gaaray Falastiin lix bil kadib ee soo anbabaxiddiisa. Falastiin waxaa xukumayay Ingiriiska, waxayna ahayd mid ee saldhigyada waawayn ay kala soo dagaalamayayn Nazi-ga. Guush wuxuu kula kulmay bolish kale badan oo soo maray sacdaalkiisa oo kale, waxayna ka mid naqodayn cuntub gaar, lagu magacaabay Ciidanka Bolishka ee hoosjoogga Xukunka Ingiriiska. Wuxuu ka dagaalamay Waqooyiga Afrika, gaar ahaan Liibiya, meesha oo uu kaga qaybqaadtay gabagabeeynta Tubruq; waagaas buu bilaabmay jacaylkiisa joogtada lehaa ee afka Carabiga, walow uusan karin inuu si dhab waxbarasho uga qaadto maaxaayeelay waxaa ka muhiimsanaa inuu barto Ingiriiska. Dagaalka gudahiisa waxaa ku dhaawacay rasaas, oo kadib cusbitaal joogitaankiisa waxaa loo diray shaqooyin kala duwan: waxay ahayd inuu ilaaliyo maxbuusyada dagaaleed ee Jarmalka oo Waqooyiga Afrika loogaga dhoofinayay xagga Maraykanka. Tan waxaa loo qabtay waayo waxay ahayd mid adag in maxbuusyada lagu kormeero dhul banaan saxaraa ah, si kastaba ma loo haynin cunto ku filan. Kadib safar dheer oo aad u halisgalinayay torbiidooyinka gujisyada Nazi-ga, qof kasta aad buu ugu faraxsanaa arkidda Taalada Xorriyada Maraykanka. Laakiin xagga Bolishka dagaalkii muusan u dhamaanin, waxay u sii shiraacsadayn Biritaanya. Meesha Guush loogaga siiyay Ciidanka Bolishka shaqo tarjumaan ahaan. Wuxuu joogay rugtaas ilaa uu nasiib ku yeeshay 1944kii in loogu deeqo waxbarasho Jaamacadda Oxford.
Georgi: Magaalada Liibiya dakadeed ee Tubruq waxaa looga tilmaamay “Qaamuuska Ingiriiska Kooban ee Collins” sidii “goob dagaal kulul ee dagaalka adduunka II: Ingiriiska wuxuu ka qabsaday Talyaaniga Janaayo 1941kii, Jarmalka wuxuu ka qabsaday Ingiriiska Juunyo 1942kii, kamadanbeeyskiina Ingiriiska ayaa qabsaday Nofeembar 1942kii”. Goortaan kula kulmay Guush Harpenden waxaan ka codsaday inuu soo xusuusto dhacdooyinkaas hoogga lehaa. Intuu tan ii sheegi lehaa ayuu ii sheegay sheeko maad ahayd ku saabsan ciyaar ee kubadda cagta oo uu Tubruq uga qaybqaadtay. Isoo leexleex kaga dabo-ordayayba buu la kulmay kubadda. Deedto ayuu bilaabay u miidaandayidda midkii ee kooxdiisa ay ahayd inuu u gudbiyo. Muusan ka go’aangaarin jeernaba, waayo muusan karin inuu kala doorto muusanna rabin inuu xumeeyo midna. Guush wuxuu ahaa qof baxsan. Mid maansadiisa ee tix xor ah cinwaankeedu ayaa ah “Dziwy niebieskie w Tobruku” (Wacdaraha Samood “Jannood” ee Tubruq”). Kaliya maansoole ayaa xidigo ka arki karay cirka hanfadka lehaa, intuu ka arki lehaa diyaarado dagaaleed. Ee, dabcan, kaliya maansoole ayaa uga bogan karay si buuxda quruxda maansada Soomaaliga. Maashaa uusan qura Guush ka tilmaanbaxinin hideha maansaad ee Soomaalida, noocyada iyo dhiska maansadooda, bal xataa wuxuu ka qabtay intuu karay, ka soo warinta erayadaada, si uu u gaarsiiyo dhugta dunida. Dadaalkan waxaa u taajsaaray “Diiwaan ee Maansada Soomaaliga” (1993kii) tarjumayna Guush iyo adiga. Maxaad ugaga sheegi kartaa aqristeyaashayna buuggan iyo hawshaad ku leedahay?
Sheila: Dabcan, boqalaalka kun oo si dhabsan uga jiray maansooyinka Soomaaliga, Guush wuxuu adeegsan karay kuwa uu laftiisa yaqaanay oo soo ururiyay intuu cilmibaaris ugu jiray Soomaaliya. Kuwan qaarka laga tarjumayo, wuxuu u isticmaalay cabbiro kala duwan si uu ku xusho: waa inay ku tixgaliyaan Soomaalidu inay maansooyin fiican yahiin; waa inay matalaan noocyo kala duwan iyona si kala duwan waa inay ku jiraan gabaw iyo cusaybba; waa inay xiisagaliyaan dadyawga Ingiriiska ku hadla; iyo waa inay macquul ku leeyahiin tarjumid fudud, ee aanan ku jirin inbadan ee siyaasada dagaanka iyo toltolnimada, waayo wuxuu rabay inuu iska dhawro wax faahfaahinba. Habkaayaga shaqeed wuu fududaa: wuxuu sameeyn jiray tarjumidda hore, kaafi-ahaanba xarafxarafka ahaa dabadeedna baan uga shaqeeyn jiray Ingiriiska si aan uga yeelo maansonimo intaan awooday, anoo siinayay dhugmo gaar habdhaca baydka, oo aynu ka doonaynay inuu u dhawaaq ekaado baydka dhabta Ingiriiska, intuu ahaan lehaa baydka Soomaaliga oo la soo guuriyay. Jeerarka qaarkooda aad baan uga weecan jiray macnahii Soomaaliga isku daygayga baydka Ingiriiska dartiisa, Guushna wuu ka caban jiray oo dib buu iigu soo celin jiray! Waxay ii ahayd kaalmo wayn, inkastaanan dhabtii ku hadlin Soomaaliga, inaan wax ka aqaanay dhaqanka iyo hideha Soomaalida iyo kuwa casrigaba ilaa iyo 1984kii, goortaanu soo qabanay booqashadayna ugu danbeeysay ee Muqadisho. Waan aqriyaa haddayto walina guud-ahaan waan kula faraxsan ahay dadaalkayna, walow ay jiraan meelal aan u suubin karay si ka fiican!
Georgi: Guush wuxuu u ahaa macallin kuwo badan, qaar ardaydiisii hore baa naqodayn macallino laftoodii. Waxaa kale oo jira aqoonyahano badan oo ahaan jirin ardaydiisa laakiin ku tixgaliya macallinkooda oo kale. Tusaale ahaan, Dotoor Martin Orwin, oo ka sii wada SOAS wixii uu bilaabay Barfasoor Andrzejewski, iyo Barfasoor Alexander Zholkovsky, oo ahaa macallinkayga Soomaaliga, qardajeexa ee cilmibaarista Soomaaliga ee dalka Ruushka. Wuxuu caan ku yahay ma ahee kaliya hawshiisa afka Soomaaliga, cilmi-afeedka dhismaha iyoba soogaanta Ruushka, bal xataa sheekooyinkiisa dhabyaalka ah. Midkooda afka Bolishka ku leh cinwaanka “Nowy Świat” (“Dunida Cusub”) ayaa Zholkovsky ku soo garwaaqsadaa la kulankiisa Guush ugu horeeyay ee Warsaw 1976kii. “Andrzejewski wuxuu naqoday nin toolman xoosh iyo shaarbo lehaa. Wuxuu iigu qaaday qado makhaayad-qaxweedka “Nowy Świat” ku taalo dhabeha isla magacaas leh – mid midadka dhaxe aada Magaalada Gabaw… Wuxuu u amaanay buuggayga Cilmiga Weereeynta Soomaaliga asoo soo saaray aqoonta uu u leeyahay. Dabadeed waxaan iska doonay geesinimo oo waydiiyay waxaan doonayay inaan muddo dheer waydiiyo – fiiradiisa ee xagga Qabsin-buugeedka V oo ay fasiraadda diiradeeyeha “waxaa” ka duwan tahay tiisa. Wuxuu yiri, gadi-ahaanba wuu wada aqbalay fasiraaddayda. “Waxaan u isticmaalaa, ayuu yiri, baridda naxweha Soomaaliga ardayda Soomaaliga”. Aminkaas ayaan dareemay ilimada oo ku bilaabmay indhahayga kuna dareeray dhamanadayda. Taas sabab wacan ayay lehayd. Qofna kale mooyee Andrzejewski naftiisa ma dhigo Soomaali, muu ku dhigo mooyee Dugsiga London, muu u dhigo mooyee ardayda Soomaaliga muuna ka soo dhigo mooyee buuggayga!” Soomaalida baa tiraa “Rag qabri iyo qawl baa ka hara”. Hal maahee bal erayo badan milgo leh baa ka haray. Waligooda may ilaawi doonaan kuwa nasiibka u lehaa wadaynimadiisa, jaalnimadiisa: bareyaal iyo ardayba.
Sheila: Waan uga helaa maahmaahdaas si aad. Dabcan, erayada Guush ma la ilaawi doono ilaa iyo intay ka jiraan maktabado dunida, waana la aqrin doonaa ilaa iyo intay dadka xiiseeyaan afka iyo soogaanta Soomaaliga. Waxaana lagu xusuusan doonaa xataa deeq yar waxbarasheed ee lagu aasaasay magaciisa si loo siiyo, labadii sannaba iyo meelahaas, kharaj lagu caawiyo qorshe la xiriira cilmibaarista Soomaaliga, amaba Oromada ee uu xataa xiiseeynayay.
Georgi: Mahadsanid aad iyo aad, Sheila.
The Traveller to Legendary Lands
No amount of praise can do justice for the late Bogumil Witalis Andrzejewski and his contribution to Somali literature and language. His tireless dedication and adoration for the Somali language had led to the Somali orthography which eventually would make Somali a written language.
Considered the world’s leading connoisseur in Somali literature, Prof. Andrzejewski’s meticulous research and writing of the Somali language, served as the blue print for many scholars and academicians in the field of Somali literature. He single handedly created a space for Somali oral literature and poetry in the composite world of literature. This interview highlights the labor of love between Andrzejewski and his beloved wife Sheila as they worked together side by side for years to translate intricate lines of Somali poetry. It’s indeed a proud moment for WardheerNews to bring this rare interview conducted by Dr. Gorge Kapchits another devoted Somali Scholar and a distinguished student of the late Professor.
Georgi Kapchits: My Somali friend Khaliil Hassan who is a member of the editorial team of WardheerNews, one of the best Somali websites, says that a generation ago Professor Andrzejewski’s nickname Goosh was known to every educated Somali. But today the young Somalis (even well educated) who visit his website know hardly anything about your husband’s contribution to the development of Somali studies. Therefore he has offered me to ask you, if you could give me an interview about Goosh. He is sure that it would be not only interesting, but also useful. Especially for the young people. What do you think about it?
Sheila Andrzejewski: Yes, I would be most interested in answering any questions about Goosh. I hope I shall be able to remember it all. Of course I love the idea of keeping his name remembered as the pioneer of bringing Somali poetry to the notice of the world, though alas the world was not often very interested...
Georgi: I wouldn’t share your opinion. It was interested, and it is interested today, 15 years after Goosh’s demise. To make sure of this it is enough to look for “Andrzejewski” in the Internet. Every searching system will immediately give you his CV and the list of his numerous publications. By the way they do not deal with the Somali poetry only, but also with the Somali language, folklore and culture. Besides there is not a single contemporary book or an article on Somali issues without a references either to “Somali poetry: An Introduction” which Goosh wrote with I. Lewis, “Xikmad Soomaali” (“Somali Wisdom”) published with Muuse Xaaji Ismaaciil Galaal or “The Declensions of Somali Nouns”, “The Case System in Somali”, “The Role of Indicator Particles in Somali” and so on. Sheila, I wonder what books or articles written by Goosh can be found now in his house in Harpenden, Herts, where, I am sure, a part of his soul lives?
Sheila: Not very much, in fact, can be found in Harpenden, because all his articles, notes on his work, even odd words on small pieces of paper, etc. are stored in two University libraries: the originals are in SOAS library, and photocopies of everything in Bloomington, Indiana. All printed works can be found in these, as well as in libraries of record and in others specialising in Africa. Recordings of his first researches in 1950-51 are stored in the British Library’s African Recordings Section. Later ones are certainly in Bloomington Library, but I am not sure if they are in SOAS. The recordings of his 1950-51 research are his sessions with Muuse Galaal, his brilliant assistant, who on being asked for a grammatical example would always quote a line of poetry which contained it. The beginnings of Goosh's interest in literature...
Georgi: How did Goosh happen to start learning Somali? When I first met him in 1990 we had a very long conversation, by the way in Somali. It was so wonderful to see the patriarch of the Somali studies and to listen to his excellent Somali. He was the first European scholar who was able to speak this language fluently. Goosh told me that Muuse Galaal had been his protector (abaan) during his first trip to Somalia and his first teacher of Somali. Here in Moscow, in my study there is a photograph which you sent me several years ago for my book “Faaliyihii la Bilkaydiyay” (“A Soothsayer Tested”). This photograph was taken in 1951. I look at it every day and see Goosh as a young man with a group of Somalis. Goosh and his friends are serious. The only exception is Muuse Galaal, smiling. How did Goosh and Muuse meet? What kind of a person was poet Muuse Xaaji Ismaaciil Galaal?
Sheila: When Goosh graduated from Oxford in 1947 with a degree in English language and literature, he started applying for jobs to teach English in schools abroad, where his Polish accent might not be noticed so much. At an interview for one in Malta (still a British colony then so the interview was at the Colonial Office in London) he talked of his interest in making a study of the Maltese language, with its links with Arabic, as he had become interested in Arabic while fighting the Germans and Italians in 1941 in Libya. He was not accepted for this job, but the interviewers promised to pass his name around, and indeed he got a letter a few weeks later offering him a job in British Somaliland, not to teach but to make a study of the language with a view to creating an alphabet; we knew nothing of the country but he accepted the job with joy! Our very first Somali friends were Anthony Mariano and Ali Sheikh Jirdeh, who were studying in England at that time (1948-9), and they gave him an idea of the pronunciation and culture, without attempting to teach him very much of the language. After Goosh’s 18 months’ initial training at SOAS on phonetics and the technique of constructing an alphabet, we arrived in Sheikh in February 1950 and found that Muuse Galaal, a teacher, had been seconded from the school to be Goosh’s informant and teacher of Somali. He very soon became our very much valued friend and adviser, as well as one of the world’s great story-tellers – he was such fun! I feel that all we knew about Somali traditional life came from him. Later he came to London to work again as Goosh’s helper, and took a diploma in linguistics, then in later life he travelled the world in various capacities, I think as the UNESCO representative for a time. He remained our beloved friend till his untimely death.
Georgi: You are absolutely right calling Muuse Galaal a great story-teller. It is enough to read “Faalyihii la Bilkaydiyay” (“A Soothsayer tested”) recited by him to Goosh who made it known to the world when published it in “Xikmad Soomaali” (“Somali Wisdom”) in 1956 and supplied with grammatical introduction and notes, which enabled it to be read in English. The folktale reveals the richness of the Somali language, the limitless creative imagination of the Somalis and their amazing philosophical insights. Here is the plot of the tale: Motivated by an order and the promise of a reward, a soothsayer concludes a contract with an oracle (a snake) about prediction; they communicate in a special place and at a special time. As predicted, war, draught and rain one after another occur. The soothsayer is rewarded each time but acts respectively aggressively, stingily and generously towards the oracle. In the end, the oracle reveals to him that. the actions of people, including those of the soothsayer’s, have an affinity with the course of world events: life resembles the structure of the world.
By the way Muuse Galaal supplied the tale with three excellent poems. My blood freezes each time I read the lines of one of them, predicting war: Eight years have passed since the deeds of Ibliis, Prince of Evil. The round of the years has brought back the jinns And all their wicked deeds. There are signs to be seen in the return of this eighth year – A wife who covers her head with a mourning-scarf, Brave men slaughtered, looted herds,Vultures pecking at the flesh of sturdy warriors, Disaster! (Translated into English by B.W. Andrzejewski and Sheila Andrzejewski) Judging by the title-page of “Xikmad Soomaali”, Andrzejewski in 1956 was a lecturer in Cushitic languages at School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS). How did his career as a scholar develop?
Sheila: When we left Somaliland in September 1950 Goosh was uncertain about the future; Professor J. R. Firth of SOAS, who had been reading his regular reports on his work, had written that he would do his best to find him a job at SOAS but nothing had been settled. Meanwhile, on his return to London he completed his report, with his plans for an official alphabet, and submitted it to the Colonial Development and Welfare Office. They eventually decided that the alphabet would be too politically difficult to introduce, so the plan was abandoned. Twenty years later it was the basis of the new alphabet, with some necessary changes proposed by Muuse and other members of the Language Committee. In January 1952 Goosh took up the post of Lecturer in Cushitic Languages at SOAS, which had been created for him, and he rose through the grades of Reader and Professor to Professor Emeritus on his retirement in 1982. Latterly the title of his post had changed from Cushitic Languages to Somali Language and Literature, reflecting his main interests.
Georgi: The 1960s were very productive for Andrzejewski as a scholar. Along with a series of pioneering articles on Somali lexicography, phonology, morphology and syntax, such as “Speech and writing dichotomy as the pattern of multilingualism in the Somali Republic”, “Pronominal and Prepositional Particles in Northern Somali”, “Notes on the Substantive Pronouns in Somali”, “Inflectional Characteristics of the so-called „Weak Verbs‟ in Somali”, “Some Observations on Hybrid Verbs in Somali” and others, his fundamental work “The Declensions of Somali Nouns” appeared. Simultaneously his love for Somali poetry, which you have already mentioned, resulted in “Poetry in Somali society”, “A Somali poetic combat” (with Galaal) and the brilliant “Somali poetry. An Introduction” written with Ioan Lewis. It would be nice if you could recollect how they worked on this book. Where and when did Goosh meet then young anthropologist who later grew into professor at the London School of Economics and one of the world’s authorities on Somali?
Sheila: I remember our first meeting with Ioan Lewis very well, but unfortunately I can’t recollect the exact year; it was probably late 1953. He was studying at Oxford for a B.Litt in anthropology with, I think, Evans-Pritchard, who had suggested he go to Somaliland for his research fieldwork. He therefore contacted Goosh, who invited him to our home for tea - our home consisted then of a small room in a friend’s house. Goosh agreed to teach him Somali, with the help of Muuse Galaal, whom Goosh had arranged for SOAS to bring over to continue his research, and also to enable Muuse to work for a Diploma in Linguistics. Ioan and Goosh soon became very firm friends and collaborators, so it was natural that they would join together to work on “Somali Poetry: An Introduction”. Goosh would do the preliminary translations, then Ioan would work with him on making the English perfect. They shared the extensive comments according to each one’s expertise.
Georgi: Your remark on the preliminary character of Goosh’s translations into English has reminded me of his roots. Bogumil Witalis Andrzejewski (this is Goosh’s full name) was born in the Polish city of Poznan in 1922. Every modern Polish encyclopaedia defines him as a Polish linguist and poet. I had had no idea about his second (if not the first!) talent till 1993 when he presented me with his “Podróż do krajów legendarnych” (“Travel to legendary lands”). Could you please elaborate on Goosh’s young years? You have already mentioned that he had fought the Nazis in 1941. As we know from history, Poland was occupied by the Germans in 1939. What happened to young Bogumil then? If I am not mistaken, Bogumil in Polish means “Loved by God”. It seems that he was really loved and taken care of by God, since he survived the disaster of war…
Sheila: In 1939 Goosh was 17 years old, looking forward to completing his secondary school and going on to university, but then Nazi Germany invaded Poland, and at once decreed that in future no Polish children were to be educated above primary level. In 1940 Goosh decided to escape from Poland, but by this time the Nazis had conquered most of Western Europe except Britain, and he had to go towards the east, through countries which had not yet been conquered, which meant Hungary, Yugoslavia and Greece. He walked most of the way, and six months after his departure he reached Palestine. This was then ruled by the British, and was one of their main bases from which to fight the Nazis. Goosh found there many other Poles who had made the same journey, and they all joined a special unit, called the Polish Army under British Command. He fought in North Africa, mainly in Libya, where he took part in the siege of Tobruk; at that time he began his enduring love for the Arabic language, though he could not undertake any serious study of it as it was more important that he should learn English. In the fighting he was wounded by a shell, and after a stay in hospital he was sent to different duties: he had to help with escorting German prisoners of war from North Africa to America. This was done because it was difficult to control the prisoners in open desert country, and anyway there was not enough food for them. After a long journey made very dangerous by the threat of torpedoes from Nazi submarines, everyone was very glad to see the Statue of Liberty. But for the Poles the war was not over, and they sailed to Britain, where Goosh was given a job as interpreter in the Polish Army. He remained in that position until he was lucky enough in 1944 to receive a scholarship to Oxford University.
Georgi: The Libyan port Tobruk is described by “Collins Concise English Dictionary” as “scene of severe fighting in Word War II: taken from the Italians by the British in January 1941, from the British by the Germans in June 1942, and finally by the British in November 1942”. When I met Goosh in Harpenden I asked him to remember those tragic events. Instead he told me a funny story about the football match in Tobruk in which he had taken part. He was running zigzag until he met the ball. Then he started pondering over to whom of his team mates he should have passed it. He never made up his mind, because he could not choose between them and did not want to offend anyone. Goosh was very unusual. One of his poems in prose is entitled “Dziwy niebieskie w Tobruku” (“Heavenly wonders in Tobruk”). Only a poet could see stars, not planes in the menacing sky of war. And, of course, only a poet could appreciate in full measure the beauty of Somali poetry. No wonder that Goosh not only described the poetical traditions of the Somalis, the genres and the structure of their poetry, but also did all he could to bring Somali poetry, according to your words, to the notice of the world. These efforts were crowned by “An Anthology of Somali Poetry” (1993) translated by Goosh and you. What could you tell our readers about this book and your work on it?
Sheila: Of course, out of the hundreds of thousands of Somali poems that actually exist, Goosh could only use those that he knew himself and had collected during his researches in Somalia. From among these, he used several criteria to select the ones to translate: they had to be considered by Somalis to be good poems; they had to be representative of various genres and to vary from old to modern; they had to be likely to interest an English-speaking public; and they had to be reasonably easy to translate, without too much about local politics or clan feuds, for he wanted to avoid explanatory footnotes. Our method of working was simple: he would make the first, fairly literal translation and then I worked on it to make the English as poetic as I could, paying particular attention to the rhythm of the verse, which we wanted to sound like true English verse rather than an imitation of the patterns of Somali verse. Sometimes I would stray too far from the Somali meanings in my attempts, and Goosh would remonstrate and bring me back in line! It was of great help to me that, although I do not actually speak Somali, I did know something of traditional Somali life, and of modern life up to 1984, when we made our final visit to Mogadishu. I read it now and I am still generally pleased with our efforts, though there are some places where I see I could have done better!
Georgi: Goosh was a teacher of many, some of his former students becoming teachers themselves. But there are also many scholars who weren’t his students but regard him as their teacher. For example, Dr. Martin Orwin, who continues in SOAS what was started by Prof. Andrzejewski, and Prof. Alexander Zholkovsky, who was my teacher of Somali, the pioneer of Somali studies in Russia. He is famous not only for his works on the Somali language, structural linguistics and Russian literature, but also for his non-fiction stories. In one of them entitled in Polish “Nowy Swiat” (“New World”) Zholkovsky recollects his first meeting with Goosh in Warsaw in 1976. “Andrzejewski turned out to be a grizzled handsome gentleman with moustache. He took me for lunch to the expensive café “Nowy Swiat” in the street of the same name – one of the central which leads to the Old Town… He praised my book on Somali syntax having revealed good knowledge of it. Then I screwed up my courage and asked about what I had wanted to ask for long – his attitude towards Appendix V in which the interpretation of the particle waxaa differs from his own. He said that by and large he had accepted my interpretation. “I use it, said he, for teaching Somali students the Somali grammar”. Now I felt that the tears started to my eyes and ran down my cheeks. There was a good reason for that. None other but Andrzejewski himself, nowhere else but in The School in London, teaches Somali none other but Somali students and teaches them with none other's but with my book! ” The Somalis say: Rag qabri iyo qawl baa ka hara – Of a man, a tomb and a word remains. Not one, but many wise words remained of your husband. They will never be forgotten by those who were lucky to be his friends, colleagues, readers and students.
Sheila: I like that proverb very much. Indeed, Goosh’s words will not be forgotten as long as there are libraries in the world, and they will be read as long as people are interested in Somali language and literature. He will be remembered, too, through the small scholarship which was founded in his name to provide, every two years or so, funds to help finance some project connected with Somali studies, or even with Oromo studies, in which he was also interested.
Georgi: Thank you very much, Sheila.